Paleo or primal fitness are often used interchangeably to describe a fitness model based on ancestral movement, nutrition, and lifestyle. To summarise why you may consider this as an optimal choice is that since the inception of the human genus, Homo, 2.5 million years ago we flourished as hunter gatherers. The human genome has remained relatively unchanged since that Paleolithic era. In our pursuit of modernisation, the last 300 generations have successfully managed to control and manipulate our natural world, which has altered our behaviours and lifestyle. With the modern lifestyle we have seen an increased prevalence of what are known as diseases of civilization such as, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease. The application of integrating Paleolithic fitness within the modern lifestyle is used to help regain optimal health and wellbeing. A modern Paleolithic lifestyle is an interpretation of how to integrate Paleolithic fitness within existing modern lifestyles.